Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2014-0010
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Review Article

The dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience: what does philosophy of mind say?

O diálogo entre a psicanálise e a neurociência: o que diz a filosofia da mente?

Elie Cheniaux; Carlos Eduardo de Sousa Lyra

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Abstract

Objective: To briefly review how the main monist and dualist currents of philosophy of mind approach the mind-body problem and to describe their association with arguments for and against a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.Methods: The literature was reviewed for studies in the fields of psychology, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind.Results: Some currents are incompatible with a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neurosciences: interactionism and psychophysical parallelism, because they do not account for current knowledge about the brain; epiphenomenalism, which claims that the mind is a mere byproduct of the brain; and analytical behaviorism, eliminative materialism, reductive materialism and functionalism, because they ignore subjective experiences. In contrast, emergentism claims that mental states are dependent on brain states, but have properties that go beyond the field of neurobiology.Conclusions: Only emergentism is compatible with a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

Keywords

Philosophy of mind, mind-body problem, psychoanalysis, neuroscience

Resumo

Objetivo: Apresentar uma breve revisão sobre como as principais correntes da filosofia da mente, monistas e dualistas, se posicionam sobre a questão mente-corpo e relacioná-las com os argumentos favoráveis e contrários a um diálogo mais estreito entre a psicanálise e a neurociência.Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica de estudos nas áreas de psicologia, psicanálise, neurociência e filosofia da mente.Resultados: São incompatíveis com um diálogo entre psicanálise e neurociência: o interacionismo e o paralelismo psicofísico, por negligenciarem os conhecimentos sobre o cérebro; o epifenomenalismo, por considerar a mente como um mero efeito colateral da atividade cerebral; assim como o behaviorismo analítico, o materialismo eliminativo, o materialismo redutivo e o funcionalismo, por ignorarem as vivências subjetivas. Diferentemente, o emergentismo considera que os estados mentais dependem dos estados cerebrais, mas apresentam propriedades que vão além do âmbito da neurobiologia.Conclusões: Somente o emergentismo é compatível com uma maior aproximação entre essas duas áreas do conhecimento.

Palavras-chave

Filosofia da mente, problema mente-corpo, psicanálise, neurociência

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