Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0029
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Review Article

Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication

Transtorno do estresse pós-traumático: complicação séria pós-terremoto

Mudassir Farooqui; Syed A. Quadri; Sajid S. Suriya; Muhammad Adnan Khan; Muhammad Ovais; Zohaib Sohail; Samra Shoaib; Hassaan Tohid; Muhammad Hassan

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Abstract

Abstract Objectives Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD Method A search for literature was conducted on major databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in neurology and psychiatry journals, and many other medical journals. Terms used for electronic searches included, but were not limited to, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake, and natural disaster. The relevant information was then utilized to determine the relationships between earthquakes and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results It was found that PTSD is the most commonly occurring mental health condition among earthquake survivors. Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias were also listed. Conclusion The PTSD prevalence rate varied widely. It was dependent on multiple risk factors in target populations and also on the interval of time that had elapsed between the exposure to the deadly incident and measurement. Females seemed to be the most widely-affected group, while elderly people and young children exhibit considerable psychosocial impact.

Keywords

Earthquake, posttraumatic stress disorder, mental health, major depressive disorder, anxiety, prevalence, risk factors

Resumo

Resumo Objetivos Terremotos são desastres naturais imprevisíveis e devastadores. Eles podem causar destruição em massa e morte, e os sobreviventes podem apresentar sintomas psicológicos severos. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar estudos publicados nos últimos 20 anos pra compilar o conhecimento disponível acerca da ocorrência de transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT) após terremotos. A revisão também descreve outras complicações psiquiátricas que podem estar associadas a terremotos, oferecendo aos leitores um melhor entendimento geral sobre o assunto, e discute vários fatores sociodemográficos que podem estar associados com TEPT pós-terremoto. Métodos Foi realizada uma busca de literatura nas principais bases de dados, como MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE e PsycINFO, e também em revistas de neurologia e psiquiatria, e vários outros periódicos médicos. Os termos usados nas buscas eletrônicas incluíram, mas não se limitaram a, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake e natural disaster. As informações relevantes foram então utilizadas para determinar as relações entre terremotos e sintomas de estresse pós-traumático. Resultados A revisão revelou que o TEPT é a condição de saúde mental mais comum em sobreviventes de terremoto. Depressão maior, transtorno de ansiedade generalizada, transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo, fobia social e fobias específicas foram outras condições encontrados. Conclusão A prevalência de TEPT variou bastante. O transtorno foi dependente de múltiplos fatores de risco em populações-alvo e também do intervalo de tempo decorrido entre a exposição ao incidente fatal e a avaliação. As mulheres pareceram ser o grupo mais amplamente afetado, ao passo que idosos e crianças demonstração considerável impacto psicossocial.

Palavras-chave

Terremoto, transtorno do estresse pós-traumático, saúde mental, depressão maior, ansiedade, prevalência, fatores de risco

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