Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0070
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Association between resilience and posttraumatic stress disorder among Brazilian victims of urban violence: a cross-sectional case-control study

Associação entre resiliência e transtorno de estresse pós-traumático em vítimas de violência urbana no Brasil: estudo transversal de caso e controle

Stefania Pigatto Teche; Alcina Juliana Soares Barros; Regis Goulart Rosa; Luciano Pinto Guimarães; Kariny Larissa Cordini; Julia Domingues Goi; Simone Hauck; Lucia Helena Freitas

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction This study investigated the association between resilience and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Brazilian victims of urban violence. It also compared defense mechanisms, parental bonding, and childhood trauma between those who developed PTSD and those who did not. Methods This cross-sectional case-control study included 66 adult subjects exposed to recent urban violence in southern Brazil – 33 with PTSD and 33 healthy controls matched by sex and age – who were administered the Resilience Scale, Defense Style Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The statistical tests used were the McNemar test for categorical variables, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for continuous asymmetric variables, and the paired Student t-test for continuous symmetric variables. Results The PTSD group showed lower total Resilience Scale scores compared with controls (128.4±20.7 vs. 145.8±13.1, respectively; p = 0.01), along with a lower ability to solve situations and lower personal values that give meaning to life (p = 0.019). They also had lower rates of mature defense mechanisms (p < 0.001) and higher rates of emotional (p = 0.001) and physical (p = 0.003) abuse during childhood. Conclusion Lower levels of resilience, especially the ability to solve situations and having personal values that give meaning to life, immature defense mechanisms, and emotional and physical abuse in childhood are associated with PTSD in adult Brazilian victims of urban violence.

Keywords

Resilience, stress disorders, urban violence, defense mechanisms, parental bonding, psychological trauma

Resumo

Resumo Introdução Este estudo investigou a associação entre resiliência e transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT) entre vítimas brasileiras de violência urbana. Comparou os mecanismos de defesa, vínculos parentais e trauma infantil entre vítimas que desenvolveram TEPT e vítimas que não desenvolveram o transtorno. Métodos Estudo de caso-controle transversal que incluiu 66 sujeitos adultos expostos à violência urbana no sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados 33 pacientes com TEPT e 33 controles saudáveis pareados por sexo e idade, que responderam a Escala de Resiliência, Questionário do Estilo Defensivo, Instrumento de Ligação Parental e Questionário sobre Traumas Infantis. Os testes estatísticos utilizados foram o teste de McNemar para variáveis categóricas, teste Wilcoxon para variáveis assimétricas contínuas e teste tde Student pareado para variáveis simétricas contínuas. Resultados O grupo que desenvolveu TEPT apresentou escores totais da Escala de Resiliência mais baixos em relação aos controles (128,4±20,7 versus145,8±13,1, respectivamente; p = 0,01), juntamente com uma menor capacidade em resolver situações e menores índices de valores pessoais que dão sentido à vida (p = 0,019). Também apresentaram taxas mais baixas de uso de mecanismos de defesas maduros (p < 0,001) e maiores taxas de abuso emocional (p = 0,001) e físico (p = 0,003) durante a infância. Conclusão Níveis mais baixos de resiliência, especialmente a capacidade de resolver situações e ter valores pessoais que dão sentido à vida, mecanismos imaturos de defesa e abuso físico e emocional na infância estão associados ao TEPT em adultos vítimas de violência urbana no Brasil.

Palavras-chave

Resiliência, transtorno de estresse, violência urbana, mecanismos de defesa, vínculos parentais, trauma psicológico

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