Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0075
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas

Instigação social e confrontos agressivos repetidos em camundongos Swiss machos: análise de corticosterona plasmática e dos níveis de CRF e BDNF em áreas cerebrais límbicas

Paula Madeira Fortes; Lucas Albrechet-Souza; Mailton Vasconcelos; Bruna Maria Ascoli; Ana Paula Menegolla; Rosa Maria M. de Almeida

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation), or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

Keywords

Aggression, social instigation, corticosterone, CRF, BDNF

Resumo

Resumo Introdução: Comportamentos agonísticos ajudam a garantir a sobrevivência, oferecem vantagem na competição e comunicam status social. O paradigma residente-intruso, modelo animal baseado em confrontos intraespecíficos entre machos, pode ser uma ferramenta etológica relevante para investigar a neurobiologia do comportamento agressivo. Objetivos: Analisar os mecanismos comportamentais e neurobiológicos do comportamento agressivo em camundongos Swiss machos expostos a confrontos repetidos no paradigma residente-intruso. Métodos: A análise comportamental foi realizada em associação com medidas de corticosterona plasmática em camundongos expostos repetidamente a um rival em potencial próximo, porém inacessível (instigação social), ou a 10 sessões de instigação social seguidas de encontros agressivos diretos. Além disso, o fator de liberação de corticotrofina (CRF) e o fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BNDF) foram medidos no encéfalo desses animais. Camundongos controles não foram expostos à instigação social ou confrontos agressivos. Resultados: Os camundongos expostos a confrontos agressivos exibiram um padrão semelhante de comportamentos agressivos e não agressivos típicos da espécie na primeira e na última sessão. Em contraste com instigação social apenas, confrontos agressivos repetidos promoveram aumento na corticosterona plasmática. Após 10 sessões de confrontos agressivos, os camundongos apresentaram uma tendência não significativa de redução dos níveis de CRF no hipocampo, que se correlacionaram inversamente com os níveis plasmáticos de corticosterona. Por outro lado, sessões repetidas de instigação social ou confronto agressivo não alteraram as concentrações de BDNF no córtex pré-frontal e hipocampo. Conclusão: A exposição a episódios repetidos de encontros agressivos não promoveu habituação ao longo do tempo. Adicionalmente, o CRF parece estar envolvido nas respostas fisiológicas aos estressores sociais.

Palavras-chave

Agressão, instigação social, corticosterona, CRF, BDNF

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