Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2017-0044
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Reliability, validity, and factorial structure of the World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5) in Iranian psychiatric outpatients

Confiabilidade, validade e estrutura fatorial do World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5) em pacientes psiquiátricos ambulatoriais iranianos

Mahboubeh Dadfar; Nahid Momeni Safarabad; Ali Asghar Asgharnejad Farid; Monir Nemati Shirzy; Farzad Ghazie pour Abarghouie

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction: The association between psychological well-being and physical and mental health has been shown in the literature. Psychological well-being is a multifaceted concept. The World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a 5-item instrument used to screen for depression. However, the validity of the WHO-5 has not been investigated in Iranian psychiatric or psychological settings. Objective: To investigate the validation of the Farsi version of the WHO-5 in a sample of Iranian psychiatric outpatients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 116 Iranian volunteer psychiatric outpatients selected from the psychiatric and psychological clinics at the School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health - Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, Iran University of Medical Sciences. Patients completed the WHO-5, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), and the short form of the Beck Depression Inventory-13 (BDI-13). Results: The mean score of the WHO-5 was 8.95 (standard deviation [SD] = 5.49). Cronbach's α for the WHO-5 was 0.91. The WHO-5 negatively correlated with PHQ-9 (-0.358), PHQ-15 (-0.328), and BDI-13 (-0.475), indicating good validity. Factor analysis of the WHO-5 items identified one factor labeled psychological well-being. Conclusions: The WHO-5 has a single dimensional structure and acceptable psychometric parameters. The results of this study suggest that WHO-5 can be used in a clinical context in Iran.

Keywords

Psychological well-being, validity, reliability, factorial structure, WHO-5, psychiatric outpatients, Iran

Resumo

Resumo Introdução: A associação entre bem-estar psicológico e saúde física e mental tem sido demonstrada na literatura. Bem-estar psicológico é um conceito multifacetado. O World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5) é um instrumento composto por 5 itens utilizado para avaliar depressão. No entanto, a validade do WHO-5 não foi investigada em contextos psiquiátricos ou psicológicos iranianos. Objetivo: Investigar a validade da versão persa do WHO-5 em uma amostra de pacientes psiquiátricos ambulatoriais iranianos. Métodos: Um estudo transversal foi conduzido com uma amostra de conveniência composta por 116 pacientes psiquiátricos ambulatoriais iranianos voluntários selecionados nas clínicas psiquiátrica e psicológica da School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, Iran University of Medical Sciences. Os pacientes completaram o WHO-5, o Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), o Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) e a versão abreviada do Beck Depression Inventory-13 (BDI-13). Resultados: O escore médio obtido no WHO-5 foi de 8,95 (desvio padrão = 5,49). O alfa de Cronbach para o WHO-5 foi 0,91. O WHO-5 se correlacionaram negativamente com o PHQ-9 (-0,358), o PHQ-15 (-0,328) e o BDI-13 (-0,475), indicando validade adequada. A análise fatorial dos itens do WHO-5 identificaram um único fator, a saber, bem-estar psicológico. Conclusão: O WHO-5 tem uma estrutura dimensional única e parâmetros psicométricos aceitáveis. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que o WHO-5 pode ser usado em contextos clínicos no Irã.

Palavras-chave

Bem-estar psicológico, validade, confiabilidade, estrutura fatorial, WHO-5, pacientes psiquiátricos ambulatoriais, Irã

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