Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

A structural model of well-being, spontaneity and self-efficacy: Italian validation between adolescents and young adults

Um modelo estrutural entre bem-estar, espontaneidade e autoeficácia: validação italiana entre adolescentes e adultos jovens

Lucia Ronconi; Noemi Giannerini; Ines Testoni; Maria Zulian; Maria Silvia Guglielmin

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Abstract Introduction: The passage from adolescence to young adulthood introduces many challenges and chances aimed at promoting independence, financial self-sufficiency, assumption of responsibilities and separation from parents. Literature shows that in the continuum between these two phases of life, many factors intervene, producing significant differentiations. Methods: This study considered three dimensions - well-being, measured through the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM); spontaneity, measured through the Spontaneity Assessment Inventory-Revised (SAI-R); and self-efficacy, measured through the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE). The study involved two groups of Italian participants: 495 adolescents, aged between 13 and 19 years, selected at a high school; and 368 young adults, aged between 18 and 30 years, recruited by snowball sampling. Results: Results of confirmatory factor analysis for each instrument in each group indicate the validity of the three instruments for both age groups. No significant differences were found between adolescents and young adults on total or subtotal scores of the CORE-OM, except for the risk factor. Conversely, the mean scores obtained with SAI-R and GSE were very different between adolescents and young adults. Conclusions: The results of path analysis show a significant mediation of spontaneity in the link between self-efficacy and all specific psychological distress domains for adolescents. Instead, there is a significant mediation of spontaneity between self-efficacy and all specific psychological distress domains except the risk domain for young adults.


Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Spontaneity Assessment Inventory-Revised (SAI-R), General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), adolescence, adulthood


Resumo Introdução: A transição da adolescência para a idade adulta envolve muitos desafios e oportunidades de promover independência, autossuficiência financeira, assunção de responsabilidades e a saída da casa dos pais. A literatura mostra que, na passagem entre essas duas fases do ciclo vital, muitos fatores podem intervir, gerando mudanças significativas. Métodos: Este estudo considerou três dimensões psíquicas: bem-estar, investigado através do Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM); espontaneidade, investigada através do Spontaneity Assessment Inventory-Revised (SAI-R); e autoeficácia, investigada por meio da escala General Self-Efficacy (GSE). O estudo envolveu dois grupos de participantes italianos: 495 adolescentes com idade entre 13 e 19 anos, selecionados em uma escola de ensino médio; e 368 jovens adultos com idade entre 18 e 30 anos, recrutados por meio de amostragem em bola de neve. Resultados: Os resultados da análise fatorial confirmatória para cada instrumento em cada grupo indicaram a validade dos três instrumentos para as duas faixas etárias. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre adolescentes e jovens adultos nos resultados total e subtotal do CORE-OM, exceto pelo fator risco. Por outro lado, os resultados médios obtidos nos instrumentos SAI-R e GSE foram muitos diferentes entre adolescentes e jovens adultos. Conclusões: Os resultados da análise fatorial mostram uma mediação significativa da espontaneidade entre a autoeficácia e todos os domínios das dificuldades psicológicas específicas dos adolescentes. Em contraste, há uma mediação significativa da espontaneidade entre a autoeficácia e todos os domínios específicos das dificuldades psicológicas dos jovens adultos, exceto para o domínio risco.


Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Spontaneity Assessment Inventory-Revised (SAI-R), General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), adolescência, vida adulta


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