Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Reliability and validity of the Farsi version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) with Iranian psychiatric outpatients

Confiabilidade e validade da versão persa do Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) em pacientes psiquiátricos ambulatoriais iranianos

Mahboubeh Dadfar; Zornitsa Kalibatseva; David Lester

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Abstract Introduction: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a brief screening and diagnostic tool for depression. It has been used in research and clinical practice in primary care and other clinical and non-clinical settings. The PHQ-9 has not had its validity examined in psychiatric and psychological settings in Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the validation of the Farsi version of the PHQ-9. A convenience sample of 130 Iranian volunteer psychiatric outpatients was selected from psychiatric and psychological clinics. They completed the PHQ-9, the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), the World Health Organization-five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), and the short form of the Beck Depression Inventory-13 (BDI-13). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Cronbach's α, Pearson correlation coefficient, principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. Results: Mean score of the PHQ-9 was 12.83 (standard deviation = 6.25), indicating moderately severe depression in the sample. Cronbach's α coefficient for PHQ-9 was 0.88, and one-week test-retest reliability 0.79. The PHQ-9 correlated 0.64 with PHQ-15, −0.35 with WHO-5, and 0.70 with BDI-13, indicating good construct and criterion-related validity. The results of the factor analysis of PHQ-9 items identified and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a single factor labeled general depression. Conclusions: The PHQ-9 appears to have a unidimensional structure, adequate validity and reliability, and can be useful in epidemiological/research settings. Based on previous literature and on the present findings, the PHQ-9 may have applicability to other contexts in the studied population, but this needs to be confirmed by other studies.


Depression, validity, reliability, factorial structure, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, psychiatric outpatients, Iran


Resumo Introdução: O Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) é uma ferramenta breve de triagem e diagnóstico para depressão. Tem sido usado em pesquisa e na prática clínica primária e em outros contextos clínicos e não clínicos. O PHQ-9 não teve sua validade examinada em contextos psiquiátricos e psicológicos no Irã. Métodos: Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para investigar a validação da versão persa do PHQ-9. Uma amostra de conveniência de 130 pacientes psiquiátricos ambulatoriais iranianos foi selecionada em clínicas psiquiátricas e psicológicas. Os pacientes completaram o PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), the World Health Organization-five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) e a forma abreviada do Beck Depression Inventory-13 (BDI-13). Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva, α de Cronbach, coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, análise de componentes principais e análise fatorial exploratória e confirmatória. Resultados: O escore médio do PHQ-9 foi 12,83 (desvio padrão=6,25), indicando depressão moderadamente severa na amostra. O α de Cronbach para PHQ-9 foi 0,88, e a confiabilidade teste-reteste de uma semana 0,79. O PHQ-9 apresentou correlação de 0,64 com PHQ-15, −0,35 com WHO-5 e 0,70 com BDI-13, indicando boa validade do construto e dos critérios relacionados. Os resultados da análise fatorial dos itens do PHQ-9 identificaram, e a análise fatorial confirmatória confirmou, um único fator, chamado depressão geral. Conclusões: O PHQ-9 parece ter uma estrutura unidimensional, validade e confiabilidade adequadas, e pode ser útil em contextos epidemiológicos e de pesquisa. Com base na literatura prévia e neste estudo, o PHQ-9 pode ter aplicabilidade em outros contextos na população estudada, mas isso precisa ser confirmado.


Depressão, validade, confiabilidade, estrutura fatorial, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, pacientes psiquiátricos ambulatoriais, Irã


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