Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2017-0121
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Validity and reliability of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) in Brazilian bipolar patients

Validade e fidedignidade da Escala de Disfunções Cognitivas no Transtorno Bipolar (COBRA) em pacientes bipolares brasileiros

Flávia M. Lima; Taiane A. Cardoso; Sílvia D. Serafim; Dayane S. Martins; Brisa Solé; Anabel Martínez-Arán; Eduard Vieta; Adriane R. Rosa

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction: In Brazil, there is no valid instrument to measure subjective cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. The present study analyzed the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) in Brazilian bipolar patients. We further investigated the relationship between the COBRA, objective cognitive measures, and illness course variables. Methods: The total sample (N=150) included 85 bipolar disorder patients and 65 healthy controls. The psychometric properties of the COBRA (e.g., internal consistency, concurrent validity, discriminative validity, factor analyses, ROC curve, and feasibility) were analyzed. Results: The COBRA showed a one-factor structure with very high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.890). Concurrent validity was indicated by a strong correlation with the cognitive domain of the FAST (r=0.811, p<0.001). Bipolar patients experienced greater cognitive complaints (mean=14.69; standard deviation [SD]=10.03) than healthy controls (mean=6.78; SD=5.49; p<0.001), suggesting discriminative validity of the instrument. No significant correlations were found between the COBRA and objective cognitive measures. Furthermore, higher COBRA scores were associated with residual depressive (r=0.448; p<0.001) and manic (r=0.376; p<0.001) symptoms, number of depressive episodes (r=0.306; p=0.011), number of total episodes (r=0.256; p=0.038), and suicide attempts (r=0.356; p=0.003). Conclusion: The COBRA is a valid instrument to assess cognitive complaints, and the combined use of subjective-objective cognitive measures enables the correct identification of cognitive dysfunctions in bipolar disorder.

Keywords

Bipolar disorder, cognition, neuropsychological tests, cognitive complaints

Resumo

Resumo Introdução: No Brasil, não existem instrumentos válidos para medir a disfunção cognitiva subjetiva no transtorno bipolar. O presente estudo analisou as propriedades psicométricas da Escala de Disfunções Cognitivas no Transtorno Bipolar (COBRA) em uma amostra brasileira de pacientes bipolares. Adicionalmente, investigamos a relação entre a COBRA, medidas cognitivas objetivas e curso da doença. Métodos: A amostra total (n=150) incluiu 85 pacientes com transtorno bipolar e 65 controles saudáveis. As propriedades psicométricas da COBRA (consistência interna, validade concorrente, validade discriminativa, análise fatorial, curva ROC e fidedignidade) foram analisadas. Resultados: A COBRA apresentou estrutura de um fator com alta consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach=0,890). A validade concorrente ficou demonstrada pela forte correlação com o domínio cognitivo da FAST (r=0,811, p<0,001). Pacientes bipolares tiveram mais queixas cognitivas [média=14,69; desvio padrão (DP)=10,03] que os controles (média=6,78; DP=5,49; p<0,001), sugerindo a validade discriminativa do instrumento. Não houve correlação significativa entre a COBRA e medidas cognitivas objetivas. Além disso, escores mais altos na COBRA estiveram associados com sintomas residuais depressivos (r=0,448; p<0,001) e maníacos (r=0,376; p<0,001), número de episódios depressivos (r=0,306; p=0,011), número de episódios totais (r=0.256; p=0.038) e tentativas de suicídio (r=0,356; p=0,003). Conclusão: A COBRA é um instrumento válido para avaliar queixas cognitivas, e o uso combinado das medidas cognitivas subjetivas-objetivas possibilita a correta identificação das disfunções cognitivas no transtorno bipolar.

Palavras-chave

Transtorno bipolar, cognição, testes neuropsicológicos, queixas cognitivas

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