Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2017-0129
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

The effects of physical activity on anxiety, depression, and quality of life in elderly people living in the community

Efeitos da atividade física sobre ansiedade, depressão e qualidade de vida em idosos da comunidade

Lucineide da Silva Santos Castelo Branco de Oliveira; Edila C. Souza; Rosilene Andrade Silva Rodrigues; Carlos Alexandre Fett; Angelo Biagini Piva

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction: Health problems may negatively affect the psychological and physical aspects of life, influencing the quality of life of older adults. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of physical activity on quality of life, anxiety, and depression in the elderly population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 200 elderly people of both genders. Subjects were divided into two groups: one with 100 senior citizens engaged in physical activities in a social center for the elderly; and another composed of 100 subjects who lived in the community but were not engaged in physical activities. The instruments used to assess physical activities, quality of life, and anxiety and depression were, respectively: the modified Baecke questionnaire; the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The data were analyzed using the Student's t test, Pearson's r, and analysis of variance (ANOVA), with odds ratio and a 5% significance level (p<0.05). Results: We observed that the active group showed higher scores of physical activity and quality of life. Conversely, the sedentary group revealed higher scores of anxiety and depression. Data assessment revealed a strong correlation between the domains quality of life, level of vitality, and mental health (r=0.77). The prevalence ratio showed that physical activity is a protective factor against anxiety and depression in the elderly. Conclusion: The findings suggest a correlation between low levels of physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the elderly living in the community.

Keywords

Aging, organic mental disorders, physical activity, scales

Resumo

Resumo Introdução: Problemas de saúde podem afetar negativamente nos aspectos físicos e psicológicos, influenciando a qualidade de vida dos idosos. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos da atividade física sobre a qualidade de vida, ansiedade e depressão na população idosa. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo transversal com 200 idosos de ambos os sexos, divididos em dois grupos: um grupo com 100 idosos envolvidos em atividades físicas do centro social para idosos; outro composto por 100 sujeitos que viviam na comunidade, mas não estavam envolvidos em atividades físicas. Os instrumentos utilizados para avaliação das atividades físicas, qualidade de vida, ansiedade e depressão foram, respectivamente: o questionário de Baecke modificado; o Questionário de Qualidade de Vida (SF-36); e a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão (HADS). Os dados foram analisados por testes t de Student, Pearson (r) e análise de variância (ANOVA), com odds ratio e nível de significância de 5% (p<0,05). Resultados: Observamos que o grupo ativo apresentou maiores escores de atividade física e qualidade de vida. Por outro lado, o grupo sedentário revelou maiores escores de ansiedade e depressão. A avaliação dos dados revelou uma forte correlação entre os domínios qualidade de vida, nível de vitalidade e saúde mental (r=0,77). A razão de prevalência mostrou que a atividade física é fator de proteção contra ansiedade e depressão em idosos. Conclusão: Os achados sugerem uma correlação entre baixos níveis de atividade física e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em idosos que vivem na comunidade.

Palavras-chave

Envelhecimento, transtornos mentais orgânicos, atividade física, escalas

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