Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2017-0130
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Review Article

Global hippocampal atrophy in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies

Atrofia global do hipocampo no transtorno depressivo maior: uma metanálise de estudos com ressonância magnética

Marcelo Antônio Oliveira Santos; Lucas Soares Bezerra; Ana Rita Marinho Ribeiro Carvalho; Alessandra Mertens Brainer-Lima

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD), an incapacitating mental disorder, is characterized by episodes of at least 2 weeks of apparent changes in mood, cognition, and neurovegetative functions. Many neuroimaging studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have examined morphometric changes in patients with MDD, but the results are not conclusive. This study aims to review the literature and perform a meta-analysis on hippocampal volume (HcV) in patients with MDD. Methods: Studies on HcV in patients with MDD diagnosis were identified from major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, PsycINFO, and SciELO) using the search terms depression, major depressive disorder, MDD, unipolar, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, and hippocampus. Results: A meta-analysis of 29 studies fulfilling specific criteria was performed. The sample included 1327 patients and 1004 healthy participants. The studies were highly heterogeneous with respect to age, sex, age of onset, and average illness duration. However, the pooled effect size of depression was significant in both hippocampi. MDD was associated with right (-0.43; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] −0.66 to −0.21) and left (-0.40; 95%CI −0.66 to −0.15) hippocampal atrophy. Conclusions: MDD seems to be associated with global HcV atrophy. Larger longitudinal follow-up studies designed to analyze the influence of sociodemographic variables on this relationship are required to yield better evidence about this topic.

Keywords

Hippocampal volume, major depressive disorder, MRI, depression

Resumo

Resumo Introdução: O transtorno depressivo maior (TDM) é uma doença mental incapacitante caracterizada por episódios de pelo menos 2 semanas de mudanças claras no afeto, cognição e funções neurovegetativas. Vários estudos de neuroimagem, realizados através de imagem de ressonância magnética (IRM), examinaram mudanças morfométricas em pacientes com TDM, com resultados não conclusivos. Este estudo tem como objetivo revisar a literatura e realizar uma metanálise sobre o volume do hipocampo (VHc) em pacientes com TDM. Métodos: Estudos de VHc em pacientes com TDM foram identificados a partir dos principais bancos de dados (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, PsycINFO e SciELO) usando os seguintes termos: depression, major depressive disorder, MDD, unipolar, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI e hippocampus. Resultados: Foi realizada uma metanálise de 29 estudos que preencheram os critérios específicos. A amostra foi composta por 1327 pacientes e 1004 indivíduos saudáveis. Os estudos foram altamente heterogêneos em relação a idade, gênero, idade do primeiro episódio e duração média da doença, mas o efeito combinado da depressão foi significativo em ambos os hipocampos. O TDM foi associado à atrofia do hipocampo à direita [-0,43; intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) −0,66 a −0,21] e à esquerda (-0,40; IC95% −0,66 a −0,15). Conclusões: O TDM parece estar associado à atrofia global do VHc. Estudos longitudinais com maior tempo de seguimento, projetados para analisar a influência dos fatores sociodemográficos nessa relação, são necessários para obter evidências mais robustas.

Palavras-chave

Volume hipocampal, transtorno depressivo maior, RM, depressão

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