Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2018-0001
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Review Article

Emotional intelligence and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a critical review

Inteligência emocional e transtornos do espectro da esquizofrenia: uma revisão crítica da literatura

Fernanda de Marzio Pestana Martins; Keila Pereira Leite; Alisson Paulino Trevizol; Julio Ricardo de Souza Noto; Elisa Brietzke

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction Emotional intelligence (EI) is a theoretical construct postulated by Mayer and Salovey to designate the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. The study of EI in schizophrenia offers new insights into the disorder’s cognitive and functional impacts. Objectives To comprehensively review studies analyzing EI impairment in schizophrenia spectrum disorders using standardized instruments. Methods Searches were run on MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and SciELO databases. The only validated instrument used was the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSCEIT). Articles that used all branches of the MSCEIT to assess EI in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls were included in the review. Results We found 30 articles on this topic. The studies analyzed showed a significant impairment of MSCEIT total score in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders when compared to healthy controls. In relation to the MSCEIT branches, understanding of emotions and management of emotions are the most impaired branches. Conclusion Since most studies are cross-sectional, it is not possible to establish a cause and effect relationship between EI deficits and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Therefore, longitudinal studies are needed to establish a clearer relationship between these variables. By so doing, we may be able to intervene for prevention and management of these disorders, aiming at better quality of life for patients.

Keywords

Emotional intelligence, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders

Resumo

Resumo Introdução Inteligência emocional (IE) é um constructo postulado por Mayer e Salovey para designar a habilidade de perceber, entender, utilizar e gerenciar emoções. O estudo de IE em esquizofrenia oferece novos insights quanto ao impacto deste transtorno em funções cognitivas e funcionais. Objetivos Conduzir revisão da literatura que analisa o prejuízo em IE nos transtornos do espectro da esquizofrenia utilizando instrumentos padronizados. Métodos Buscas foram realizadas nos bancos de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov e SciELO. O único instrumento validado utilizado foi a Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSCEIT). Artigos que utilizaram todas as ramificações da MSCEIT para avaliar IE em transtornos do espectro da esquizofrenia e em controles saudáveis foram incluídos na revisão. Resultados Encontramos 30 artigos no tópico estudado. Os estudos analisados mostraram um prejuízo significativo da IE pela MSCEIT em pacientes com transtornos do espectro da esquizofrenia quando comparados com controles saudáveis. Em relação às ramificações da MSCEIT, compreensão das emoções e gerenciamento das emoções foram as ramificações com maior prejuízo. Conclusão Devido à maior parte dos estudos serem estudos transversais, não é possível estabelecer uma relação de causa e efeito entre os déficits em IE e transtornos do espectro da esquizofrenia. Portanto, estudos longitudinais são necessários para se estabelecer uma relação mais clara entre essas variáveis. Assim, talvez possamos intervir na prevenção e manejo desses transtornos, para uma melhor qualidade de vida dos pacientes.

Palavras-chave

Inteligência emocional, esquizofrenia, transtornos psicóticos

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