Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2018-0069
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Smartphone and Facebook addictions share common risk and prognostic factors in a sample of undergraduate students

Dependência de smartphone e dependência de Facebook compartilham fatores de risco e prognósticos em uma amostra de estudantes universitários

Julia Machado Khoury; Maila de Castro Lourenço das Neves; Marco Antônio Valente Roque; André Augusto Correa de Freitas; Michele Ralil da Costa; Frederico Duarte Garcia

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction To improve the comprehension of the interface between smartphone addiction (SA) and Facebook addiction (FA), we hypothesize that the occurrence of both technological addictions correlate, with higher levels of negative consequences. Moreover, we hypothesize that SA is associated with lower levels of social support satisfaction. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of undergraduate students from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, with age ranging between 18 and 35 years. All subjects completed a self-fulfilled questionnaire comprising sociodemographic data, the Brazilian Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-BR), the Bergen Scale for Facebook Addiction, the Barrat Impulsivity Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Social Support Satisfaction Scale (SSSS), and the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS-8). After completing the questionnaire, the interviewer conducted a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results In the univariate analysis, SA associated with female gender, with ages 18 to 25 years, FA, substance abuse disorders, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, low scores in SSSS, high scores in BSSS-8, and high scores in BIS. The group with SA and FA presented a higher prevalence of substance abuse disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders when compared to the group with SA only. Conclusion In our sample, co-occurrence of SA and FA correlated with higher levels of negative consequences and lower levels of social support satisfaction. These results strongly suggest that SA and FA share some elements of vulnerability. Further studies are warranted to clarify the directions of these associations.

Keywords

Smartphone addiction, Facebook addiction, social network addiction, social support, sensation seeking, impulsivity

Resumo

Resumo Introdução Para melhorar a compreensão da interface entre dependência de smartphone (DS) e a dependência de Facebook (DF), avaliamos a hipótese de que a ocorrência simultânea de ambas as dependências corelaciona-se com o número de consequências negativas por elas produzidas. Além disso, avaliamos se a DS está associada a níveis mais baixos de satisfação com o suporte social. Método Recrutamos uma amostra de conveniência de estudantes de graduação da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, na faixa de 18 e 35 anos. Todos os sujeitos preencheram o questionário avaliando dados sociodemográficos e contendo a versão brasileira do Smartphone Addiction Inventory, a Escala de Bergen para DF, a Escala de Impulsividade de Barrat 11 (BIS-11), a Escala de Satisfação com o Suporte Social (SSSS) e a Escala Breve de Busca de Sensações (BSSS-8). Após o preenchimento do questionário, os entrevistadores realizaram a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Resultados Na análise univariada, a DS associou-se ao sexo feminino, pessoas na faixa de idade entre 18 e 25 anos, rastreio para DF, transtornos por uso de substâncias, transtorno depressivo maior, transtornos de ansiedade, baixos escores na SSSS, altos escores na BSSS-8 e altos escores na BIS. O grupo rastreado positivamente para DS e DF apresentou maior prevalência de transtornos por uso de substâncias, depressão e transtornos de ansiedade quando comparado ao grupo rastreado apenas para DS. Conclusão Na amostra avaliada, a comorbidade de DS e DF se correlacionou a níveis mais altos de consequências negativas e níveis mais baixos de satisfação com o suporte social. Esses resultados sugerem que DS e DF compartilham fatores de vulnerabilidade. Estudos adicionais são necessários para esclarecer a direção dessas associações.

Palavras-chave

Dependência de smartphone, dependência de Facebook, dependência de redes sociais, suporte social, busca por sensações, impulsividade

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