Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://trends.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/2237-6089-2018-0104
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Music performance anxiety: perceived causes, coping strategies and clinical profiles of Brazilian musicians

Ansiedade de performance musical: causas percebidas, estratégias de enfrentamento e perfil clínico de músicos brasileiros

Ana Beatriz Burin; Ana Elisa Medeiros Barbar; Ivan Sérgio Nirenberg; Flávia de Lima Osório

Downloads: 0
Views: 407

Abstract

Abstract Introduction Music performance anxiety (MPA) is characterized by long-lasting, high intensity apprehension associated with performing music in public. At extreme levels, MPA can impair the career and quality of life. Our goal is to describe the clinical profile, perceived causes and coping strategies associated with MPA. Methods In this cross-sectional study, several self-assessment instruments were administered to a sample of 214 Brazilian musicians (68% male, 53.3% classical/46.7% popular musicians). Data were analyzed using descriptive and parametric statistics, based on the variables of musical training and level of MPA. Results Percentages of indicators of pathology were high (40% high MPA levels, 37% social anxiety, 12.5% depression, 13.5% alcohol abuse), and musicians with high MPA levels were the most affected. A wide variety of situations were associated with MPA, especially those related to the individual (pressure from self/concern about audience). Emotion-focused coping and internal resources were prominent among the resources used for coping with MPA (breathing, increased practice, familiarization with performance venue), although they were not always effective. It was relatively uncommon for musicians to seek specialized resources and treatments. Conclusions The results demonstrate the vulnerability of the targeted professional groups and the need for preventive strategies and behavioral, environmental, educational, and pharmacological interventions to change this scenario.

Keywords

Anxiety, music performance, coping strategies, musicians, psychopathology

Resumo

Resumo Introdução Ansiedade de performance musical (APM) é definida como uma condição de apreensão duradoura e intensa, associada ao desempenho musical em público. Em níveis extremos é prejudicial à carreira e qualidade de vida do músico. Objetiva-se descrever o perfil clínico, as causas percebidas e estratégias de enfrentamento da APM. Métodos Neste estudo transversal, vários instrumentos de autoavaliação foram administrados a 214 músicos brasileiros (68% do sexo masculino, 53,3% clássicos/ 46,7% populares). Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e paramétrica, com base nas variáveis formação musical e nível de APM. Resultados Encontrou-se um percentual elevado de indicadores de psicopatologia (40% altos níveis de APM, 37% ansiedade social, 12,5% depressão, 13,5% abuso de álcool), sendo os músicos com altos níveis de APM aqueles com maior comprometimento. Uma ampla variedade de situações foi associada à APM, com destaque para aquelas relacionadas ao próprio indivíduo (pressão de si próprio/preocupação com a plateia). Entre os recursos utilizados para enfrentamento da APM destacaram-se aqueles focados na regulação emocional e no uso de recursos internos dos músicos (respiração, aumento do treino, familiarização com a prática no local da apresentação), embora nem sempre tenham sido eficazes. Mostrou-se pouco comum a busca por recursos e tratamentos especializados. Conclusões Evidencia-se a condição de vulnerabilidade desse grupo profissional e a necessidade de estratégias preventivas e intervenções comportamentais, ambientais, educativas e farmacológicas que permitam mudanças neste cenário.

Palavras-chave

Ansiedade, performance musical, estratégias de enfrentamento, músicos, psicopatologia

References

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). 2013.

Barbar AE, Crippa JA, Osório FL. Performance anxiety in Brazilian musicians: prevalence and association with psychopathology indicators. J Affect Disord. 2014;152:381-6.

Osborne MS, Franklin J. Cognitive processes in music performance anxiety. Aust J Psychol. 2008;54:86-9.

Burin AB, Osório FL. Interventions for music performance anxiety: results from a systematic literature review. Arch Clin Psychiatry. 2016;43:116-31.

Steptoe A. Negative emotions in music making: the problem of performance anxiety. Music & emotion: theory and research. 2001:291-307.

Brugués AO. Music performance anxiety-part 2: a review of treatment options. Med Probl Perform Art. 2011;26:164-71.

Kenny D. A systematic review of treatments for music performance anxiety. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2005;18:183-208.

Nascimento SEF. Ansiedade de performance musical: um estudo sobre o uso de betabloqueadores por bacharelandos em música. 2013.

Kenny DT. The factor structure of the revised Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory. International Symposium on Performance Science. 2009.

Kenny D, Davis P, Oates J. Music performance anxiety and occupational stress amongst opera chorus artists and their relationship with state and trait anxiety and perfectionism. J Anxiety Disord. 2004;18:757-77.

Rocha SF, Dias Neto E, Gattaz WF. Anxiety in musical performance: translation, adaptation and validity of Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI) for the Portuguese language. Rev Psiquiatr Clin. 2011;38:217-21.

Reiss S, Peterson RA, Taylor S, Schimidt NB. Anxiety sensitivity index consolidated user manual: ASI, ASI-3, and CASI. 2008.

Burin AB. Ansiedade de performance musical: causas percebidas, estratégias de enfrentamento e perfil clínico de músicos brasileiros e australianos. 2017.

Kenny DT. The psychology of music performance anxiety. 2011.

Connor KM, Davidson JR, Churchill LE, Sherwood A, Foa E, Weisler RH. Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN): a new self-rating scale. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;176:379-86.

Osório FL, Crippa JAS, Loureiro SR. Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN): validation for Brazil. Rev Psiquiatr Clin. 2004;26:25-9.

Biaggio AMB, Natalício L, Spielberger CD. Development of the Portuguese experimental form of the Spielberger Trait-State Anxiety Inventory (IDATE). Arq Bras Psicol. 1977;29:31-44.

Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16:606-13.

Osório FL, Vilela Mendes A, Crippa JAS, Loureiro SR. Study of the discriminative validity of the PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 in a sample of Brazilian women in the context of primary health care. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2009;45:216-27.

Lima CT, Freire AC, Silva AP, Teixeira RM, Farrel M, Prince M. Concurrent and construct validity of the AUDIT in an urban Brazilian sample. Alcohol Alcohol. 2005;40:584-9.

Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 1988.

Andrade LH, Wang YP, Andreoni S, Silveira CS, Alexandrino-Silva C, Siu ER. Mental disorders in megacities: findings from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil. PLoS One. 2012;7:1-11.

Van Kemenade JFLM, Van Son MJM, Van Heesch NC. Performance anxiety among professional musicians in symphonic orchestras: a self-report study. Psychol Rep. 1995;77:555-62.

Yoshie M, Kudo K, Ohtsuki T. Effects of psychological stress on state anxiety, electromyographic activity, and arpeggio perfor-mance in pianists. Med Probl Perform Art. 2008;23:120-32.

Barlow DH. Anxiety and its disorders. 1988.

Clark DB, Agras WS. The assessment and treatment of performance anxiety in musicians. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:598-605.

Rapee RM, Heimberg RG. A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behav Res Ther. 1997;35:741-56.

Sabino ADV, Camargo CM, Chagas MHN, Osório FL. Facial recognition of happiness is impaired in musicians with high music performance anxiety. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9.

Reiss S, McNally RJ. The expectancy model of fear. Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. 1985:107-21.

Valentine E. The fear of performance. Musical performance: a guide to understanding. 2002:168-82.

Kemp AE. The musical temperament: psychology and personality of musicians. 1996.

Lehmann A, Sloboda J, Woody R. Psychology for musicians: understanding and acquiring the skills. 2007.

Sinico A, Winter L. A influência do repertório sob a ansiedade na performance musical de estudantes de flauta. 2013.

Kenny D, Ackermann B. Performance-related musculoskeletal pain, depression and music performance anxiety in professional orchestral musicians: a population study. Psychol Music. 2013;43:1-18.

Persson RS. The maestro music teacher and musicians’ mental health. 1996.

Antoniazzi AS, Dell’Aglio DD, Bandeira DR. The concept of coping: a theoretical revision. Estud Psicol. 1988;3:273-94.

Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, appraisal, and coping. 1884.

Studer R, Gomez P, Hildebrandt H, Arial M, Danuser B. Stage fright: its experience as a problem and coping with it. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011;84:761-71.

Zakaria JB, Musib HB, Shariff SM. Overcoming performance anxiety among music undergraduates. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2013;90:226-34.

Burin AB, Osório FL. Interventions for music performance anxiety: results from a systematic literature review. Arch Clin Psychiatry. 2016;43:116-31.

Kenny D, Driscoll T, Ackermann B. Psychological well-being in professional orchestral musicians in Australia: a descriptive population study. Psychol Music. 2014:210-32.

Fishbein M, Middlestadt SE, Otatti V, Straus S, Ellis A. Medical problems among musicians: overview of a national survey. Med Probl Perform Art. 1988;3:1-8.

Maciente MN. Estratégias de enfrentamento para a ansiedade de performance musical (APM): um olhar sobre músicos profissionais de orquestras paulistas. 2016.

McGrath CE. Music performance anxiety therapies: a review of the literature. 2012.

Ray S, Kaminski LC, Dueti R, Fonseca CA, Rocha S, Santos PJP. Exploratory study on the impact of information on performance psychology on the level of stress and anxiety of Brazilian practicing musicians. Opus. 2016;22:303-23.

Dews CLB, Williams MS. Student musicians’ personality styles, stresses, and coping patterns. Psychol Music. 1989;17:37-47.

Bittencourt SA, Oliveira MS, Souza CC. Study of the relationship between social phobia and alcohol use. Rev Bras Ter Cogn. 2005;1:135-46.

Mejía CMG. Estratégias para o controle da ansiedade na performance musical. 2016.

6165e98da953950ec4103e6a trends Articles
Links & Downloads

Trends Psychiatry Psychother

Share this page
Page Sections