Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Original Article

Gender invariance and psychometric properties of a Brazilian version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ)

André Luiz de Carvalho Braule Pinto, Sonia Regina Pasian, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

Downloads: 0
Views: 536


Introduction: Emotion regulation refers to use of strategies to change or suppress a response to an affective experience and is an important component of an individual’s subjective wellbeing. Difficulties properly regulating emotions are related to psychopathological processes. Objective: This study assessed the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ); the invariance of its psychometric parameters as a function of gender; and its convergent validity with other scales measuring affective processes. Method: A total of 813 adults (73.7% women), aged between 18 and 64 years and with a high educational level used an electronic platform to complete the ERQ, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Affect Scale (AS), and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the adapted version of the ERQ were investigated. Results: Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) revealed adequate goodness of fit for the ERQ’s two-factor model (cognitive reappraisal and emotional suppression), providing evidence of invariance of its psychometric parameters as a function of gender. Correlations between the ERQ’s factors and measures of affect and emotional dysregulation presented positive indicators, with significant associations between emotion regulation and affective experiences depending on gender. Conclusion: The ERQ presents good psychometric indicators for use with the Brazilian population.


Emotion regulation, self-regulation, psychometrics, measurement invariance, gender differences.


1. Gross JJ, John OP. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003;85:348-62.

2. Gross JJ, Jazaieri H. Emotion, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. Clin Psychol Sci. 2014;30:387-401.

3. Gross JJ. Handbook of emotion regulation. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford; 2014.

4. Spaapen DL, Waters F, Brummer L, Stopa L, Bucks RS. The emotion regulation questionnaire: validation of the ERQ-9 in two community samples. Psychol Assess. 2014;26:46-54.

5. Kiekens G, Hasking P, Boyes M. Measurement invariance of three brief emotion regulation questionnaires in people with and without a history of non-suicidal. Eur J Psychol Assess. 2018;35:835-41.

6. Matsumoto D, Yoo SH, Nakagawa S. Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008;94:925-37.

7. Gardener EK, Carr AR, MacGregor A, Felmingham KL. Sex differences and emotion regulation: an event-related potential study. PLoS One. 2013;8:e73475.

8. Mcrae K, Ochsner KN, Mauss IB, Gabrieli JJ, Gross JJ. Gender differences in emotion regulation: an fmri study of cognitive reappraisal. Group Process Intergroup Relat. 2008;11:143-62.

9. Gross JJ. Emotion regulation. In: Lewis JM, Haviland-Jones LF, editor. Handbook of emotions. New York: Guilford Press; 2008. p. 497-512.

10. John OP, Eng J. Three approaches to individual differences in affect regulation: Conceptualizations, measures, and findings. In: Gross JJ, editor. Handbook of emotion regulation. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2014. p. 321-45.

11. Gómez-Ortiz O, Romera EM, Ortega-Ruiz R, Cabello R, FernándezBerrocal P. Analysis of emotion regulation in spanish adolescents: validation of the emotion regulation questionnaire. Front Psychol. 2016;6:1959.

12. Sala MN, Molina P, Abler B, Kessler H, Vanbrabant L, van de Schoot R. Measurement invariance of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). A cross-national validity study. Eur J Dev Psychol. 2012;9:751-7.

13. Boian AC, Soares DS, Lima J. Questionário de regulação emocional [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2021 Mar 9].

14. Balzarotti S, John OP, Gross JJ. An Italian adaptation of the emotion regulation questionnaire. Eur J Psychol Assess. 2010;26:61-7.

15. Andreano JM, Dickerson BC, Barrett LF. Sex differences in the persistence of the amygdala response to negative material. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014;9:1388-94.

16. Stevens JS, Hamann S. Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:1578-93.

17. Kwon H, Yoon KL, Joormann J, Kwon J. Cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation: relation to depression. Cogn Emot. 2013;27:769-82.

18. Westerlund M, Santtila P. A Finnish adaptation of the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ) and the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS-16). Nord Psychol. 2018;70:304-23.

19. Balzarotti S. The emotion regulation questionnaire: factor structure and measurement invariance in an Italian sample of community dwelling adults. Curr Psychol. 2019;4.

20. Thompson MS. Assessing measurement invariance of scales using multiple-group structural equation modeling. In: Schweizer K, DiStefano C, editors. Principles and methods of test construction: standards and recent advancements. Boston: Hogrefe Publishing; 2016. p. 218-44.

21. Putnick DL, Bornstein MH. Measurement invariance conventions and reporting: the state of the art and future directions for psychological research. Dev Rev. 2016;41:71-90.

22. Damásio BF. Contribuições da Análise Fatorial Confirmatória Multigrupo (AFCMG) na avaliação de invariância de instrumentos psicométricos. Psico-USF. 2013;18:211-20.

23. Valentini F, Franco VR, Iglesias F. Introdução à análise de invariância: influência de variáveis categóricas e intervalares na parametrização dos itens. In: Damásio BF, Borsa JC, editors. Manual de desenvolvimeto de instrumetos psicológicos. São Paulo: Vetor; 2017. p. 347-74.

24. van de Schoot R, Lugtig P, Hox J. A checklist for testing measurement invariance. Eur J Dev Psychol. 2012;9:486-92. 25. Melka SE, Lancaster SL, Bryant AR, Rodriguez BF. Confirmatory factor and measurement invariance analyses of the emotion regulation questionnaire. J Clin Psychol. 2011;67:1283-93.

26. Rice SM, Treeby MS, Gersh E, Ogrodniczuk JS, Kealy D. The emotion regulation questionnaire: ERQ-9 factor structure and measurement invariance in Australian and Canadian community samples. TPM Test Psychom Methodol Appl Psychol. 2018;25:369- 77.

27. Batistoni SS, Ordonez TN, da Silva TB, do Nascimento PP, Cachioni M. Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ): indicadores psicométricos e relações com medidas afetivas em amostra idosa. Psicol Reflex Crit. 2013;26:10-8.

28. Gouveia VV, de Moura HM, de Oliveira IC, Ribeiro MG, Rezende AT, Brito TR. Emotional Regulation Questionnaire ( ERQ ): evidence of construct validity and internal consistency. Psico-USF. 2018;23:461-71.

29. DiStefano C. Examining fit with structural equation models. In: Schweizer K, DiStefano C, editors. Principles and methods of test construction: standards and recent advances. Göttingen: Hogrefe Publishing; 2016. p. 166-93.

30. Hu LT, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling. 1999;6:1-55.

31. Gross JJ. Emotion regulation: affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology. 2002;39:281-91.

32. Miguel FK, Giromini L, Colombarolli MS, Zuanazzi AC, Zennaro A. A Brazilian investigation of the 36- and 16-item difficulties in emotion regulation scales. J Clin Psychol. 2017;73:1-14.

33. Zelkowitz RL, Cole DA. Measures of emotion reactivity and emotion regulation: Convergent and discriminant validity. Pers Individ Dif. 2016;102:123-32.

34. Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa (ABEP). Critério Brasil 2015 [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2021 Mar 9].

35. Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988;54:1063-70.

36. Giacomoni CH, Hutz CS. A mensuração do bem-estar subjetivo: escala de afeto positivo e negativo e escala de satisfação de vida [Resumos]. In: Sociedade Interamericana de Psicologia (Org), Anais XXVI Congresso Interamericano de Psicologia. 1997. p. 313.

37. Zanon C, Hutz CS. Escala de Afetos Positivos e Afetos Negativos (PANAS). In: Hutz CS, editor. Avaliação em psicologia positiva. Porto Alegre: Artmed; 2014. p. 63-7.

38. Zanon C, Bastianello MR, Pacico JC, Hutz CS. Desenvolvimento e validação de uma escala de afetos positivos e negativos. PsicoUSF. 2013;18:193-201.

39. Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2004;26:41-54.

40. Rosseel Y. lavaan: an R package for structural equation modeling. J Stat Softw. 2012;48:1-36.

41. Jorgensen TD. Package “semTools”: useful tools for structural equation modeling [Internet]. 2018 Jun 27 [cited 2021 Mar 9].

42. Revelle MW. psych: procedures for personality and psychological research [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2021 Mar 9. www.scholars.

43. Hancock GR. Effect size, power, and sample size determination for structured means modeling and MIMIC approaches to betweengroups hypothesis testing of means on a single latent construct. Psychometrika. 2001;66:373-88.

44. Cheung GW, Rensvold RB. Evaluating goodness-of- fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Struct Equ Modeling. 2002;9:233-55.

45. Skinner EA, Edge K, Altman J, Sherwood H. Searching for the structure of coping: a review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychol Bull. 2003;129:216-69.

46. Golino HF, Demetriou A. Estimating the dimensionality of intelligence like data using exploratory graph analysis. Intelligence. 2017;62:54-70.

47. Keith TZ, Caemmerer JM, Reynolds MR. Comparison of methods for factor extraction for cognitive test-like data: which overfactor, which underfactor? Intelligence. 2016;54:37-54.

48. American Educational Research association (AERA). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington: American Educational Research Association; 2014.

49. Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH. Psychometric theory. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1978.

50. Pasquali L. Psicometria: teoria dos testes na psicologia e na educação. 4th ed. Petrópilis: Editora Vozes; 2017.

51. Goldin PR, McRae K, Ramel W, Gross JJ. The neural bases of emotion regulation: reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63:577-86.

52. McRae K, Rhee SH, Gatt JM, Godinez D, Williams LM, Gross JJ. Genetic and environmental influences on emotion regulation: a twin study of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Emotion. 2017;17:772-7.

53. Bardeen JR, Fergus TA, Orcutt HK. An examination of the latent structure of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2012;34:382-92.

612d1960a9539513240947d3 trends Articles
Links & Downloads

Trends Psychiatry Psychother

Share this page
Page Sections