Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Review Article

Bidirectionality of smoking and depression in adolescents: a systematic review

Mudassir Farooqui, Samra Shoaib, Humera Afaq, Syed Quadri, Fatima Zaina, Aqsa Baig, Ayesha Liaquat, Zoona Sarwar, Atif Zafar, Sana Younus

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Recently, evidence has been accumulating that both smoking and mental health disorders are continuously increasing among adolescents. This systematic review elucidates the research into evidence of the direction of the association and risk factors influencing the relationship between smoking and depression. We also highlight recent studies on the effects of electronic cigarettes and developments on the association between depression and smoking.

A literature search was conducted on databases including PubMed, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in relevant neurology and psychiatry journals. Terms used for electronic searches included smoking, tobacco, cigarettes; depression; adolescent, youth; direction. Relevant information was then utilized to synthesize findings on the association between smoking and depression among adolescent population.

The initial database searches yielded 2,738 related articles. After screening and crossreferencing, duplicate articles, articles published in languages other than English, and studies on animals, social and lifestyle factors, mood disorders, and substance use were excluded. Of these, a total of 122 publications only focusing on smoking and depression in the adolescent population were selected for synthesis in this qualitative systemic review. These include 110 original research articles, eight metaanalyses and reviews, and four reports and websites.

The relationship between smoking and depression in the literature does not reflect the cause-effect relationship. The lack of evidence on the direction of the association may reflect futile study designs, confounding factors and/or use of indirect measures of depression and quantification of smoking. Future prospective randomized studies should target elucidation of the causal association.


Smoking, depression, adolescents, mental health, depressive disorder

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62b4c982a953957f637234f3 trends Articles
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Trends Psychiatry Psychother

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